This article aims to show you how to either create a random population or import a dataset then take a random sample using `R`.

## What is a Sample?

So when you have a population of something, you'll start to notice that the population has certain characteristics. The characteristics (or parameters) could include the average (`mean`) of the population, the `standard deviation` of the population or something else.

In certain situtations, you might not know what those population parameters are so the way we try to estimate one is by taking a sample and study it.

## Taking a Sample

When you take a sample, you need to know how many items to take. This is called the sample count and we will refer to as `n`. From there, we can calculate a statistic that will be used to estimate a parameter.

# Generate a Population, Take a Sample

## Create a Random Population in R

We use the matrix object to create a random matrix.

``````# Set the seed of R's random number generator, which is useful for creating simulations or random objects that can be reproduced.
# set.seed(5)
# Create a matrix object
nCols = 5
nRows = 3
population <- matrix( runif(nCols * nRows), ncol = nCols )

# Print the Population
print.listof(list(population))
`````` Here's how to only show the first row of apopulation.

``````# Print the First Row of the Population
first_row <- population[1,]
print(first_row)
`````` Here's how to show the first column of a population.

``````# Print the First Column of the Population
first_col <- population[,1]
print(first_col)
`````` ## Take a Sample from the Population

``````# Create a Random Population
nCols = 5
nRows = 3
population <- matrix( runif(nCols * nRows), ncol = nCols )

# Print the Population
print.listof(list(population))

# Generate a Random Sample from the Population
n <- 5
random_sample = sample(population, n)

# Print a Random Sample from the Population
sprintf("Randon Sample of %s item is %1.7f", length(n), random_sample)
`````` # Import a Population, Take a Sample

In this example, we are importing CSV data from Github and taking a random sample.

``````# This will allow you to reproduce the same random results I do.
set.seed(10)